Article i 'Tidsskrift for arbejdsliv' no. 2 2003, page 63-72.
Management is a social practice through which the meaning of the system's operations and limits are created. By focusing the analysis on social practice the message is: If we wish to analyze and understand management we should not only focus on the social practices of managers, nor is it interesting only to analyze the practice of management bodies such as teams of leaders, boards of directors. On the contrary, I argue that management is a relational phenomenon. This points toward the growing interest in cross-hierarchical management processes making it important to include employees as well as managers in the analysis. In the paper I address five modes of cross-hierarchical management in Scandinavia: a) worker collectives and industrial negotiations; b) autonomous teams and democratic dialogue; c) skilled workers as strategic actors; d) co-management; and e) organizational citizens. The paper concludes with a discussion of why cross-hierarchical management emerges and the challenges it is facing.