Article i 'Tidsskrift for arbejdsliv' no. 3 2002, page 25-42.
The current search for a new approach to employment in later life in Europe stems from the juxtaposition of changes in employment (in particular the decline of the standard male industrial worker on which most public pension systems were based) and the ageing of the workforce, in a context of budgetary pressure created by a range of factors including economic and monetary union, unemployment and population ageing. The idea of retirement as a distinct phase devoted to leisure at the end of the working life is being undermined by changes in employment, while the culture of early exit is challenged by workforce ageing and the pressures on social protection systems. This has revived interest in the fourth pillar of retirement income ? employment ? after an extended period in which the early exit of older workers was seen as one of the goals of employment policy.