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arbetslösas fritidsdeltagande, sökaktivitet, anställningsmöjligheter och tidsstruktur

Charlotte Samuelsson

Stockholm, Swedish Institute for Social Research, 2002, 248 s. ISBN 91-7604-094-1 ; ISSN 0283-8222
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Beskrivelse af doktorafhandlingen:
The purpose of this thesis, which consists of an introduction and four empirical studies, is to answer two general questions, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data: 1) Do the unemployed live active or passive lives? and 2) To what extent can the activities the unemployed engage in be considered to be successful coping strategies?
The first chapter, Activity as a coping strategy during unemployment, serves as an introduction to the four empirical studies and deals with the value of work. Three well-known theories of the consequences of unemployment are presented: the deprivation theory, the agent theory and the vitamin model. The chapter also includes a discussion of coping strategies and previous studies of how the unemployed cope with their situation.
No job, no leisure?In this chapter the participation in 18 different leisure activities of full-time employed and unemployed persons is compared. The analyses show that leisure participation among the long-term unemployed is significantly less extensive than among the employed. The differences, however, are very small. A majority of the unemployed engage in several of the 18 leisure activities and can't be described as "passive" leisure participants. Furthermore, a significant and negative relationship was found between unemployment risk and exercising on a weekly basis, participation in study circles and gardening. This is interpreted as a result of underlying factors that influence not only leisure participation but also the risk of becoming unemployed. These factors could be personality characteristics such as ambition, self-confidence and the ability to solve problems and to plan ahead.
Continuity and change of leisure participation. The study explores how changes in labour market status are related to changes in participation in the 18 leisure activities. The conclusion is that changes in leisure participation have very little to do with changes in labour market status. Instead the analyses reveal that an important factor for changes in leisure participation, both in terms of more active and less active leisure participation, is whether the respondent has moved between the two interviews. The most frequent changes in the 18 leisure activities were starting and quitting to exercise or pursuing a hobby.
Search activity and job demands ­ can the unemployed influence their job opportunities?The results in this chapter show that a combination of several search methods increase the chances of finding new employment. Job demands, on the other hand, do not seem to have any significant meaning for the probability of finding a job. Having certain job demands does not necessarily mean that the unemployed will refuse a job offer that doesn't match those demands. Furthermore, frequently neglected factors (the experience of stigma, partner's labour market status and the unemployed's own judgement of their job prospects) are shown to be important in explaining search activity, job demands and the probability of finding employment.
The meaning of activities for the unemployed's structured routine and sense of purpose . In this chapter the relationship between different activities (leisure participation, search activity and domestic labour) and time structure is explored. Active leisure participation is found to be significantly and positively related to time structure. The unemployed who often engage in various leisure activities also plan what to do the following day, don't have any difficulty making the day go by and feel they can spend the days doing things they consider to be meaningful. Active job hunting is also significantly and positively related to a sense of meaning. Domestic labour, on the other hand, seems to be a way to keep busy in the absence of other things to do.